Annual reports filed by certain Canadian issuers pursuant to Section 15(d) and Rule 15d-4

Critical accounting estimates and judgments

Critical accounting estimates and judgments
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Critical accounting estimates and judgements [Abstract]  
Critical accounting estimates and judgements
Critical accounting estimates and judgments
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS often requires management to make estimates about, and apply assumptions or subjective judgment to, future events and other matters that affect the reported amounts of the Company’s assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. Assumptions, estimates and judgments are based on historical experience, expectations, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time at which the Company’s consolidated financial statements are prepared. Management reviews, on a regular basis, the Company’s accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments in order to ensure the consolidated financial statements are presented fairly and in accordance with IFRS.
Critical accounting estimates and judgments are those that have a significant risk of causing material adjustment and are often applied to matters or outcomes that are inherently uncertain and subject to change. As such, management cautions that future events often vary from forecasts and expectations and that estimates routinely require adjustment.
Management considers the following areas to be those where critical accounting policies affect the significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Critical estimates in applying the Company’s accounting policies
Contingent consideration
Contingent consideration is a financial liability recorded at fair value. The amount of contingent consideration to be paid is based on the occurrence of future events, such as the achievement of certain development, regulatory and sales milestones. Accordingly, the estimate of fair value contains uncertainties as it involves judgment about the likelihood and timing of achieving these milestones as well as the discount rate used. Changes in fair value of the contingent consideration obligation result from changes to the assumptions used to estimate the probability of success for each milestone, the anticipated timing of achieving the milestones and the discount period and rate to be applied. A change in any of these assumptions could produce a different fair value, which could have a material impact on the results from operations. The impact of changes in key assumptions is described in note 10.
Derivative Warrant Liabilities
Warrants issued pursuant to equity offerings that are potentially exercisable in cash or on a cashless basis resulting in a variable number of shares being issued are considered derivative liabilities and therefore measured at fair value.
The Company uses the Black-Scholes pricing model to estimate fair value at each exercise and period end date. The key assumptions used in the model are the expected future volatility in the price of the Company’s shares and the expected life of the warrants. The impact of changes in key assumptions is described in note 11.
Fair value of stock options
Determining the fair value of stock options on the grant date, requires judgment related to the choice of a pricing model, the estimation of stock price volatility and the expected term of the underlying instruments. Any changes in the estimates or inputs utilized to determine fair value could result in a significant impact on the Company’s reported operating results, liabilities or other components of shareholders’ equity. The key assumption used by management is the term of the underlying instrument.
Critical judgments in applying the Company’s accounting policies
Revenue recognition
Management’s assessments related to the recognition of revenues for arrangements containing multiple elements are based on estimates and assumptions. Judgment is necessary to identify separate performance obligations and to allocate related consideration to each separate performance obligation. Where deferral of license fees is deemed appropriate, subsequent revenue recognition is often determined based on certain assumptions and estimates, the Company’s continuing involvement in the arrangement, the benefits expected to be derived by the customer and expected patent lives. The estimate of variable consideration requires significant judgment and an assessment of their potential reversal. Management also uses judgement in assessing if a license is a right to use or a right to access intellectual property. Factors that are considered include whether the customer reasonably expects (arising from the entity's customary business practices) that the entity will undertake activities that will significantly affect the intellectual property, the rights granted by the license directly expose the customer to any positive or negative effects of the entity's activities and whether those activities transfer a separate good or service to the customer. To the extent that any of the key assumptions or estimates change, future operating results could be affected.
Impairment of intangible assets
The Company follows the guidance of IAS 36 to determine when impairment indicators exist for its intangible assets. When impairment indicators exist, the Company is required to make a formal estimate of the recoverable amount of its intangible assets. This determination requires significant judgment. In making this judgment, management evaluates external and internal factors, such as significant adverse changes in the technological, market, economic or legal environment in which the Company operates as well as the results of its ongoing development programs. Management also considers the carrying amount of the Company’s net assets in relation to its market capitalization as a key indicator. In making a judgment as to whether impairment indicators exist as at December 31, 2018, management concluded there were none.
Derivative warrant liabilities
Management has determined that derivative warrant liabilities are classified as long term as these derivative warrant liabilities will ultimately be settled for common shares and therefore the classification is not relevant.