Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (U.S. GAAP) for interim financial information and in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments considered necessary for fair presentation in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 was derived from audited annual consolidated financial statements but does not include all annual disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. The results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year or any other future periods.
Restricted cash Restricted cash: Restricted cash consists of the 2021 Employee Share Purchase Plan (2021 ESPP) deposits of $0.7 million and $0.3 million as of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.
Major Customers Major Customers: The Company currently has two main customers for U.S. commercial sales of LUPKYNIS and a collaboration partner for sales of LUPKYNIS in the EU, Japan, as well as the United Kingdom, Russia, Switzerland, Norway, Belarus, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Ukraine (collectively, the "Otsuka Territories"). Revenues from the two main customers in the U.S. accounted in total of approximately 48% for the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 74% for the nine months ended September 30, 2022 of the Company's total revenues. Our collaboration partner for sales outside the U.S. accounted for approximately 52% and 26% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 of the Company's total revenues.In late March 2022, we provided a nominal additional discount to both of our two main U.S. customers, applicable for the remainder of the 2022 calendar year, in connection with holding additional amounts of LUPKYNIS on hand due to supply chain concerns. Such discounts, or any future discounts, may result in reduced sales to these customers in subsequent periods and substantial fluctuations in our revenues from period to period. The Company monitors economic conditions, the creditworthiness of customers and government regulations and funding, both domestically and abroad. The Company regularly communicates with its customers regarding the status of receivable balances. Global economic conditions and customer specific factors may require the Company to periodically re-evaluate the collectability of its receivables and based on this evaluation the Company could potentially incur credit losses.
Product Revenues
Product Revenues
In the United States (and territories), the Company sells LUPKYNIS primarily to specialty pharmacies and specialty distributors. These customers subsequently resell the Company's products to health care providers and patients. Revenues from product sales are recognized when the customer obtains control of our product, which typically occurs upon delivery to the customer.
Reserves for discounts and allowances: Product sales are recorded at the net sales price (transaction price), which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established. These reserves are based on estimates of the amounts earned or to be claimed on the related sales and are classified as reductions of accounts receivable (if the amount is payable to our customer) or a liability (if the amount is payable to a party other than our customer).
The Company's estimates of reserves established for variable consideration are calculated based upon utilizing the expected value method. The transaction price, which includes variable consideration reflecting the impact of discounts and allowances, may be subject to constraint and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the amount of the cumulative revenues recognized will not occur in a future period. Amounts related to such items are estimated at contract inception and updated at the end of each reporting period as additional information becomes available.
Significant judgment is required in estimating variable consideration. In making these estimates, we consider historical data, including patient mix and inventory sold to our customers that has not yet been dispensed. We use a data aggregator and historical claims to estimate variable consideration for inventory sold to our customers, including specialty pharmacies and specialty distributors, that has not yet been dispensed. Actual amounts may ultimately differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results vary, the Company adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on earnings in the period of adjustment. As of September 30, 2022, we did not have any material adjustments to estimates based on actual results. These specific adjustments are detailed further in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development or commercial sales milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be
included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaboration and other revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Any consideration related to sales-based royalties (and sales-based milestones) will be recognized when the related sales occur.
Accounts receivable, net Accounts receivable, net: Accounts receivable are stated at their net realizable value. The Company's accounts receivable represents amounts due to the Company from product sales and from its Otsuka collaboration agreement (Note 12). Milestone payments that have not been invoiced as of the balance sheet date are recorded as unbilled accounts receivable. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, accounts receivable, net are $41.8 million and $15.4 million. The accounts receivable, net as of September 30, 2022 includes $28.8 million due from Otsuka related to the achievement of a regulatory milestone in September 2022, for which payment was received on October 31, 2022. The timing between the recognition of revenue for product sales and the receipt of payment is not significant. Our standard credit terms range from 30 to 45 days. We do not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component if the expectation at contract inception is such that the period between the transfer of the promised good to the customer and receipt of payment will be one year or less. We estimate the allowance for doubtful accounts using the current expected credit loss, or CECL, model. Under the CECL model, the allowance for doubtful accounts reflects the net amount expected to be collected from the account receivables. We evaluate the collectability of these cash flows based on the asset’s amortized cost, the risk of loss even when that risk is remote, losses over an asset’s contractual life, and other relevant information available to us. Accounts receivable balances are written off against the allowance when it is probable that the receivable will not be collected. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $nil as of September 30, 2022 and as of December 31, 2021
Share-based Compensation Share-Based Compensation: The Company follows ASC Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation (ASC 718), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense, based on estimated fair values, for all share-based awards made to employees and directors. The Company records compensation expense based on the fair value on the grant date using the graded accelerated vesting method for all share-based payments related to stock options, performance awards (PAs), restricted stock units (RSUs) and purchases under the Company's 2021 ESPP. For stock options, forfeitures are estimated based on historical experience at the time of grant and revised in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. For RSUs and PAs, forfeitures are accounted for as they occur.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which clarifies and simplifies certain aspects of the accounting for income taxes such as eliminating the exception to the general intraperiod tax allocation principle. The standard is effective for years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2021, with no material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance, which requires business entities to make annual disclosures about transactions with a government (including government assistance) by analogizing to a grant or contribution accounting model. The required disclosures include the nature of the transaction, the entity's related accounting policy, the financial statement line items affected and the amounts reflected in the current period financial statements, as well as any significant terms and conditions. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company adopted the ASU effective January 1, 2022, with no material impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements.