Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation Basis of presentation: The Company follows accounting standards established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) to ensure consistent reporting of financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. References to generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) or U.S. GAAP in these footnotes are to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC or the Codification). Previously, the Company prepared its consolidated financial statements under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as permitted by securities regulators in Canada, as well as in the United States under the status of a Foreign Private Issuer as defined by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). At the end of the second quarter of 2020, the Company determined that it no longer qualified as a Foreign Private Issuer under the SEC rules. As a result, beginning January 1, 2021 the Company is required to report with the SEC on domestic forms and comply with domestic company rules in the United States. The transition to U.S. GAAP was made retrospectively for all periods from the Company’s inception. New accounting standards implemented subsequent to January 1, 2018 were adopted on their required adoption date.
Principles of consolidation Principles of consolidation: These financial statements present the consolidated financial position of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of operations and cash flows for the three years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation
Use of estimates Use of estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Segment information Segment information: The Company operates in one operating segment engaged in the research, development and commercialization of therapeutic drugs in which revenues are derived from license, contract and product revenues. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise where separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, the chief executive officer, in deciding how to allocate resources and assessing performance. The chief operating decision maker allocates resources and assesses performance based upon discrete financial information at the consolidated level.
Fair value measurements Fair value measurements: The Company's financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities. The Company has determined the carrying values of these financial instruments approximate their fair value because of the relatively short period to maturity of the instruments.Financial assets and liabilities are categorized based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the valuation of the fair value of assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy levels.
Concentration of credit risk
Concentration of credit risk: Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short term investments. The Company attempts to minimize the risks related to cash and cash equivalents and investments by investing in a broad and diverse range of financial instruments. The Company established guidelines related to credit ratings and maturities intended to safeguard principal balances, earn a return on investments and to maintain liquidity. The Company's investment portfolio is maintained in accordance with its investment policy, which defines allowable investments, specifies credit quality standards and limits the credit exposure of any single issuer. The Company does not enter into any investment transaction for trading or speculative purposes.
The Company’s investment policy limits investments to certain types of instruments such as certificates of deposit, money market instruments, obligations issued by the U.S. government and U.S. government agencies as well as corporate debt securities, and places restrictions on maturities and concentration by type and issuer. The Company may at times maintain cash balances in excess of amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and concentrated within a limited number of financial institutions. The accounts are monitored by management to mitigate the risk. The Company is exposed to financial risk related to the fluctuation of foreign currency exchange rates which could have a material effect on its future operating results or cash flows. Foreign currency risk is the risk that variations in exchange rates between the United States dollar and foreign currencies, primarily with the Canadian dollar, will affect the Company's operating and financial results. The Company holds the majority of its cash and cash equivalents in US dollars and the majority of its expenses, including clinical trial costs are also denominated in US dollars, which mitigates the risk of material foreign exchange fluctuations.
The Company currently anticipates to have 3 main customers and 1 rest of world partner for sales of LUPKYNIS. The Company monitors economic conditions, the creditworthiness of customers and government regulations and funding, both domestically and abroad. The Company regularly communicates with its customers regarding the status of receivable balances, including their payment plans and obtains positive confirmation of the validity of the receivables. An allowance against accounts receivable is established when it is probable they will not be collected. Global economic conditions and customer-specific factors may require the Company to periodically re-evaluate the collectability of its receivables and the Company could potentially incur credit losses.
Cash and cash equivalents Cash and cash equivalents: The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist primarily of money market funds and bank money market accounts and are stated at cost, which approximate fair value. Cash and cash equivalents totaled $272.4 million as of December 31, 2020. The Company has invested its cash reserves in short term U.S. dollar denominated, fixed rate, highly liquid and highly rated financial instruments such as treasury notes, banker acceptances, bank bonds, and term deposits.
Investments Investments: The Company classifies its debt securities as either held to maturity or available-for-sale in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 320, Investments — Debt Securities. Investments classified as held to maturity are carried at amortized cost when management has the positive intent and ability to hold them to maturity. Investments classified as available-for-sale are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reported in other comprehensive income/loss within shareholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses on held to maturity and available-for-sale securities are recorded in other income (expense), net. Interest income (expense) is recorded separately on the consolidated statements of operations. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method.
Accounts receivable Accounts receivable: Accounts receivables are stated at their net realizable value. Estimates of the Company's allowance for doubtful accounts are determined based on existing contractual payment terms, historical payment patterns of our customers and individual customer circumstances. Historically, the amounts of uncollectible accounts receivable that have been written off have been insignificant. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $0 as of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
Functional currency Functional currency: The functional currency for the Company and all of its foreign subsidiaries is determined to be the U.S. dollar, therefore there is no currency translation adjustment upon consolidation as the translation is recorded in the income statement. All assets and liabilities denominated in a foreign currency are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the average exchange rate during the period. Equity transactions are translated using historical exchange rates. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on translation or settlement of a foreign currency denominated monetary item are included in the consolidated statements of operations.
Intangible assets
Intangible assets: Intangible assets are amortized over their useful lives using methods that correlate to the pattern in which the economic benefits are expected to be realized. All intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis. Implementation costs related to a hosting arrangement that is a service contract will be amortized over the term of the hosting arrangement, beginning when the module or component of the hosting arrangement is ready for its intended use. The Company evaluates the estimated remaining useful life of its intangible assets and whether events or changes in circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. The carrying amounts of these assets are periodically reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. Refer to the long-lived assets section below for impairment considerations.
Acquired intellectual property and patents
External patent costs specifically associated with preparing, filing, obtaining and protecting patents are capitalized and amortized straight-line over the shorter of the estimated useful life and the patent life, commencing in the year of the grant of the patent. Other intellectual property expenditures are recorded as research and development expenses on the consolidated statements of operations as incurred. Patents do not contain the option to extend or renew.
Separately acquired intellectual property is shown at historical cost. The initial recognition of a reacquired right is recognized as an intangible asset measured on the basis of the remaining contractual term of the related contract. If the terms of the contract giving rise to a reacquired right are favorable relative to the terms of current market transactions for the same or similar items, the difference is recognized as a gain or loss in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Purchased intellectual property and reacquired rights are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss over periods ranging from 10 to 20 years.
Implementation costs of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract
The Company’s costs associated with implementing cloud computing arrangements have been capitalized as implementation costs of hosting arrangements that are service contracts. Costs capitalized include external direct costs of materials and services consumed in developing or obtaining the internal-use software, including fees paid to third parties for services to develop software during the application development stage, costs incurred to obtain software from third parties and travel expenses directly associated with developing the enterprise resource planning system. Subsequent development costs incurred are capitalized to the extent that they provide additional functionality or a new territory to the existing software and hosting arrangement.
Property, plant and equipment Property, plant and equipment: Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. Expenditures for additions and betterments are capitalized. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; however, maintenance and repairs that improve or extend the life of existing assets are capitalized. The carrying amount of assets disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts in the year of disposal. Gains or losses from property and equipment disposals are recognized in the year of disposal.
Recoverability and impairment of long-lived assets Recoverability and impairment of long-lived assets: ASC Topic 360 requires long-lived assets, including definite-lived intangible assets, to be evaluated for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. The judgments made related to the expected useful lives of long-lived assets, definitions of lease terms and the Company’s ability to realize undiscounted cash flows in excess of the carrying amounts of these assets are affected by factors such as the ongoing maintenance and improvements of the assets, changes in economic conditions, changes in usage or operating performance and other factors. If indicators are present, assets are grouped to the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other asset groups and cash flows are estimated for each asset group over the remaining estimated life of each asset group. If the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by the asset group are less than the asset’s carrying amount, impairment is recognized in the amount of excess of the carrying value over the fair value.
Leases
Leases: The Company assesses all contracts at inception to determine whether a lease exists. The Company’s leases are all classified either as operating or finance leases per ASC 842. Certain leases have lease and non-lease components, which are accounted for as a single lease component.
The Company leases office space under operating leases that typically provide for the payment of minimum annual rentals and may include scheduled rent increases. The Company also entered into a manufacturing agreement that contained an embedded lease of a dedicated manufacturing facility that will be accounted for as a financing lease once lease commencement begins (see Note 15).
The Company adopted ASC Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, which requires lessees to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: (1) a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and (2) a right-of-use asset (ROU asset), which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. ASC 842 also requires lessees to classify leases as either finance or operating leases based on whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase of the leased asset by the lessee. This classification is used to evaluate whether the lease expense should be recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
The Company elected, for all asset classes, the practical expedient that allows lessees to treat the lease and non-lease components of leases as a single lease component. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the Company's consolidated balance sheet, and fixed costs associated with these arrangements are disclosed in Note 15 of the financial statements.
The Company has elected to recognize lease incentives, such as tenant improvement allowances, at the lease commencement date as a reduction of the ROU asset and lease liability until paid to the Company by the lessor, to the extent that the lease provides a specified fixed or maximum level of reimbursement, and the Company is reasonably certain to incur reimbursable costs at least equaling such amounts.
Operating lease ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company used the incremental borrowing rate for all of its leases, as the implicit interest rate was not readily determinable. In determining the Company’s incremental borrowing rate of each lease, the Company considered recent rates on secured borrowings, observable risk-free interest rates and credit spreads correlating to the Company's creditworthiness, the impact of collateralization and the term of each of the Company's lease agreements. The lease terms range from 12 to 128 months.
The table in Note 15 provides supplemental balance sheet information related to the operating lease ROU assets and lease liabilities.
Royalty obligation Royalty obligation: The Company has recorded a royalty obligation in liabilities for estimated future employee benefits relating to applicable historical employment arrangements. Pursuant to ASC Topic 710, the Company recognizes future royalty benefits provided by employee retention arrangements, as a royalty obligation, which is recognized when the Company determines that it is probable to make future payments.
Initially, these obligations are measured at the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting periods. Subsequent re-measurements as a result of performance obligations met by the Company or changes in assumptions are recognized in the consolidated statement of operations.
The Company is required to use judgment to determine the most appropriate model to use to measure the obligation and is required to use significant judgment and estimates in determining the inputs into the model. The royalty obligation is based on an income approach using an internal risk-adjusted net present value of the future royalty payments to be made to the former executive officers which are based on the future net revenues for voclosporin. The royalty rates applied to the net revenue are dependent on the type of net revenue earned. There are multiple unobservable inputs. The determination of this royalty obligation is subject to significant judgments and estimates in determining the significant assumptions including:
Net pricing - this includes the established WAC pricing of the product and estimates of payor and channel mix (which include government rebates, customer discounts and co-payment programs) and annual price escalations of the product.
Number of patients being treated - this includes various inputs including the number of patients receiving treatment, market penetration, time to peak market penetration, speed of response to treatment, duration of treatment, patient adherence, dosing adjustments according to the approved product labeling and the timing of generics and competitors entering the market.
Discount rate - the rate used to derive the present value of future cash flows based on the Company's estimated cost of equity rate.
Management developed the model and inputs in conjunction with their internal scientific team and utilized third party scientific studies, information provided by third party consultants engaged by the Company and research papers as sources to develop their inputs. Management believes the liability is based on reasonable assumptions, however these assumptions may be incomplete or inaccurate and unanticipated events and circumstances may occur. There are numerous significant inputs into the model all of which individually or in combination result in a material change to the obligation.
Contingencies Contingencies: In the normal course of business, the Company may be subject to loss contingencies, such as legal proceedings, amounts arising from contractual arrangements and claims arising out of the Company’s business that cover a wide range of matters, including, among others, government investigations, shareholder lawsuits, product and environmental liability, and tax matters. In accordance with ASC Topic 450, Accounting for Contingencies, (ASC 450), the Company records accruals for such loss contingencies when it is probable that a liability will be incurred, and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company, in accordance with this guidance, does not recognize gain contingencies until realized.
Revenue recognition
Revenue Recognition: Pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), the Company recognizes revenue when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services. The Company records the amount of revenue that reflects the consideration that it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recognized through a five-step process: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied. The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it is probable that the Company will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer. At contract inception, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract and determines those that are performance obligations. Revenue is recognized for the applicable performance element when each distinct performance obligation is satisfied.
Product Revenues
In the United States (and territories), the Company sells LUPKYNIS primarily to specialty pharmacies and specialty distributors. These customers subsequently resell the Company's products to health care providers and patients. Revenues from product sales are recognized when the customer obtains control of our product, which occurs at a point in time, typically upon delivery to the customer.
Reserves for discounts and allowances: Product sales are recorded at the net sales price (transaction price), which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established. These reserves are based on estimates of the amounts
earned or to be claimed on the related sales and are classified as reductions of accounts receivable (if the amount is payable to our customer) or a liability (if the amount is payable to a party other than our customer). The Company's estimates of reserves established for variable consideration are calculated based upon utilizing the expected value method. The transaction price, which includes variable consideration reflecting the impact of discounts and allowances, may be subject to constraint and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the amount of the cumulative revenues recognized will not occur in a future period. Actual amounts may ultimately differ from the Company's estimates. If actual results vary, the Company adjust these estimates, which could have an effect on earnings in the period of adjustment.
More specifically, these adjustments include the following:
Prompt Pay Discounts: The Company generally provides invoice discounts on product sales to its customers for prompt payment. The Company estimates that its customers will earn these discounts and fees, and deducts the full amount of these discounts and fees from its gross product revenues and accounts receivable at the time such revenues are recognized.
Customer Fees: The Company pays certain customer fees, such as fees for certain data that customers provide to the Company. The Company records fees paid to its customers as a reduction of revenue, unless the payment is for a distinct good or service from the customer and the Company can reasonably estimate the fair value of the goods or services received. If both conditions are met, the Company records the consideration paid to the customer as a G&A expense.
Government Rebates: The Company estimates its government rebates, primarily Medicaid and Medicare rebates based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payor mix. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability that is included in accrued expenses on the consolidated balance sheet.
Medicaid rebates relate to the Company's estimated obligations to states under established reimbursement arrangements. Rebate accruals are recorded in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a liability, which is included in other current liabilities. The Company's liability for Medicaid rebates consists of estimates for claims that a state will make for the current quarter, claims for prior quarters that have been estimated for which an invoice has not been received, invoices received for claims from the prior quarters that have not been paid and an estimate of potential claims that will be made for inventory that exists in the distribution channel at period end.
For Medicare, the Company also estimates the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom the Company will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program. The Company’s liability for these rebates consists of invoices received for claims from prior quarters that have not been paid or for which an invoice has not yet been received, estimates of claims for the current quarter, and estimated future claims that will be made for product that has been recognized as revenue, but remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period.
Co-payment Assistance: Co-payment assistance represents financial assistance to qualified patients, assisting them with prescription drug co-payments required by insurance. The program is administered by the Specialty Pharmacies. The calculation of the accrual for co-payment assistance is based on the co-payments made on the Company's behalf by the Specialty Pharmacies.
License, Collaboration and Other Revenues
The Company enters into out-licensing agreements that are within the scope of ASC 606, under which it licenses certain rights to its product candidates to third parties. The terms of these arrangements typically include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments, payments for manufacturing supply services the Company provides through its contract manufacturers, and royalties on net sales of licensed products. Each of these payments results in license, collaboration and other revenues, except for revenues from royalties on net sales of licensed products, which are classified as royalty revenues.
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as it fulfills its obligations under each of its agreements, the Company performs the following steps: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the
transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation. As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation identified in the contract. The Company uses key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.
Licenses of Intellectual Property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the licensee and the licensee is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.
Manufacturing Supply Services: Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug substance or drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply at the licensee’s discretion are generally considered as options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the licensee and if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If the Company is entitled to additional payments when the licensee exercises these options, any additional payments are recorded in license, collaboration and other revenues when the licensee obtains control of the goods, which is typically upon delivery.
Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development or commercial sales milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaboration and other revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment. Any consideration related to sales-based royalties (and sales-based milestones) will be recognized when the related sales occur.
Research and development costs Research and development costs: Research and development costs are accounted for in accordance with ASC Topic 730, Research and Development, (ASC 730) and are expensed as incurred. Research and development costs consist primarily of the cost of salaries, share-based compensation expenses, payroll taxes and other employee benefits, subcontractors and materials used for research and development activities, including nonclinical studies, clinical trials, manufacturing costs and professional services. The costs of services performed by others in connection with the research and development activities of the Company, including research and development conducted by others on behalf of the Company, shall be included in research and development costs and expensed as the contracted work is performed. The Company accrues for costs incurred as the services are being provided by monitoring the status of the trial or project and the invoices received from its external service providers. Where contingent milestone payments are due to third parties under research and development arrangements or license agreements, the milestone payment obligations are expensed when the milestone results are probable to be achieved.
Inventory
Inventory: The Company capitalizes inventory costs related to products to be sold in the ordinary course of business. The Company makes a determination of capitalizing inventory costs for a product based on, among other factors, status of regulatory approval, information regarding safety, efficacy and expectations relating to commercial sales and recoverability of costs. Pre-launch inventory is held as an asset when there is a high probability of regulatory approval for the product.
Inventories are valued under a standard costing method and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The Company measures inventory, which include the direct purchase cost of materials and supplies and manufacturing overhead costs, by
approximating actual cost under a first-in, first-out basis. The Company assesses recoverability of inventory each reporting period to determine any write down to net realizable value resulting from excess or obsolete inventories.
Share-based compensation Shared-based compensation: The Company follows ASC Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation (ASC 718), which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense, based on estimated fair values, for all share-based awards made to employees and directors. The Company records compensation expense associated with service and performance-based stock options in accordance with provisions of authoritative guidance. The estimated fair value of service-based awards is determined using option pricing models that use unobservable inputs and is generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period and is recognized based on the proportionate amount of the requisite service period that has been rendered during each reporting period. The estimated fair value of performance-based awards is measured on the grant date and is recognized when it is determined that it is probable that the performance condition will be achieved. The Company has elected a policy to estimate forfeitures based on historical forfeiture experience.
Warrants Warrants: The Company classifies issued warrants to purchase shares of its common stock as equity on its consolidated balance sheets. The Company uses the Black-Scholes model to measure the grant date fair value of the warrants at issuance. The grant date fair value of the warrants is included as a component of equity and is transferred from warrants to common shares upon exercise.
Income taxes Income taxes: The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740). Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between the financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that are expected to be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized as income in the period that such tax rate changes are enacted. The portion of any deferred tax asset for which it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized must then be offset by recording a valuation allowance. Financial statement recognition of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return is determined based on a more-likely-than-not threshold of that position being sustained. If the tax position meets this threshold, the benefit to be recognized is measured as the largest amount that is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense.